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English Morphology Answers - Part 2

English Morphology Answers - Part 2

English morphology answers about: constituent morphemes, free and bound morphemes, inflectional and derivational affixes, compound words, syntactic category, word root and stem, suffixes and prefixes.

Answers 1                     Exercise

a) Divide the following words into their constituent morphemes by placing a plus sign (+) between the morphemes, and indicate for each morpheme whether it is bound or free:

clean + ing + lady
anti + skid + ing + device
(F) + (B) + (F)
(B) + (F) + (B) + (F)
nation + hood
mush + room
(F) + (B)
(F) + (F)
de + rail + ment + s
de + put + ise
(B) + (F) + (B) + (B)
(B) + (F) + (B)
inter + nation + al + iz + ation
pre + destin + at + ion
(B) + (F) + (B) + (B) + (B)
(B) + (F) + (B) + (B)

b) A number of morphemes in the following passage are italicized. For each, say
whether it is bound or free; if bound, whether it is an inflection or a derivational affix.

-ful : Bound, Derivational
-ive : Bound, Derivational
-ary : Bound, Derivational
-ed : Bound, Inflectional
thing : Free
-ies : Bound, Inflectional
-al : Bound, Derivational

Answers 2                     Exercise

Study the following passage and then answer the questions below. Take your examples from the passage.

a) Identify 3 compound words. For each one, name the grammatical category of the compound, and the grammatical category of the elements that compose it.

sunlight is a noun, made up of noun + noun.
new-born is an adjective, made up of adjective + verb.
dragonflies is a noun, made up of noun + noun.

b) Divide the following words into their component morphemes, labelling each morpheme F (free), I (inflectional), or D (derivational):

un + be + liev + able, dragon + fli + es
(D) + (D) + (F) + (D), (F) + (F) + (I)

c) What is the function of the suffix –ly in the words fatuously, solemnly, and thickly?

The suffix -ly creates adverbs (fatuously, solemnly, and thickly) when it is attached to adjectives (fatuous, solemn, and thick)

d) Identify two other words containing (different) derivational suffixes, name the grammatical category of the stem to which the suffix is attached, and the grammatical category of the derived word.

wild (adjective) + ness = Noun
aerobat (noun) + ic = Adjective

e) Describe the function of the suffix –s in foals and waves, and that of the suffix -ed in swayed and sparkled.

The suffix -s is an inflectional morpheme that signals the plural form of nouns, foal and wave are sigular nouns, they become plural nouns when the morpheme -s is suffixed to them.
The suffix -ed is also an inflectional morpheme that signals the past tense form of regular verbs, when attached to the morpheme -ed they describe an action happening in the past.

f) Comment on the past tense forms swam and broke.

the past tense of the verbs swim and break is expressed by an ablaut form where a substitution of vowels occurs in the past form.

Answers 3                     Exercise

List the morphemes in each word below, and state whether each morpheme is free (F) or bound (B) :
 
revengeful
revenge (F)
ful (B)
misunderestimated
mis (B)
under (B)
estimate (F)
ed (B)
unrestricted
un (B)
re (B)
strict (F)
ed (B)
afters
afters (F)
eathest
eath (F)
est (B)
havingness
have (F)
ing (B)
ness (B)
undeterminable
un (B)
de (B)
termine (F)
able (B)
upset
up (B)
set (F)
strawberry
straw (F)
berry (F)
upstairs
up (B)
stair (F)
s (B)
asymmetric
a (B)
sym (B)
metre (F)
ic (B)
ditransitive
di (B)
trans (F)
ite (B)
ive (B)
landholder
land (F)
hold (F)
er (B)
mission
mission (F)

Answers 4                     Exercise

Place a (+) between the morphemes of these words as shown in the example below: (Some of the words may be indivisible so they are monomorphemic.)

compress
com + press
revision
re + vis + ion
microphone
micro + phone
befriended
be + friend + ed
conscious
con + scious
televise
tele + vise
superior
super + ior
margin
margin
sociology
socio + logy
endearment
end + ear + ment
tendency
tend + ency
psychology
psycho + logy
delete
delete
unpalatable
un + palat + able
unsupported
un + sup + port + ed
holiday
holi + day
unsupportable
un + sup + port + able
grandmother
grand + mother
unsupportability
un + sup + port + abil + ity
morphemic
morph + em + ic
unsupportably
un + sup + port + abl + y
mistreatment
mis + treat + ment
unsupportableness
un + sup + port + able + ness
deactivation
de + act + iv + at + ion
independentists
in + depend + ent + ist + s
saltpeter
salt + pet + er
forget
for + get
airsickness
air + sick + ness
infinitary
in + finit + ary
bureaucrat
bureau + crat
motives
motive + s
democrat
demo + crat
abruption
ab + rupt + ion
aristocrat
aristocrat
aerialist
aer + ial + ist
plutocrat
pluto + crat
serialization
seri + al + iz + ation
democracy
demo + cracy
carnivorous
carni + vor + ous
democratic
demo + crat + ic
transmit
trans + mit
democratically
demo + crat + ic + al + ly
sympathy
sym + path + y
democratization
demo + crat + iz + ation
insane
in + sane
democratize
demo + crat + ize
riche
riche
democratizer
demo + crat + iz + er
phobia
phobia
democratizing
demo + crat + iz + ing
embeded
em + bed + ed
democratized
demo + crat + iz + ed

Answers 5                     Exercise

Match between the expression under A with one statement under B that characterized it:

a. the beard
6. grammatical morpheme followed by lexical morpheme
b. beardlike
5. root morpheme plus derivational suffix
c. blackbeard
1. compound noun
d. beards
4. root morpheme plus inflectional affix
e. white beard
3. phrase consisting of adjective plus noun

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