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Phonology Resit Exam 1 Answers

Phonology Resit Exam Answers

Phonology resit exam answers about: Trubetzkoy’s phonological oppositions, distinctive features, vowel deletion, vowel harmony, consonant Insertion, Syrian Arabic, coronal sounds and phonological rules.

Exercise 1

Complementary distribution: The occurrence of sounds in a language that they are never occurs in the same phonetic environment. Sounds that are in complementary distribution are allophones of the same phoneme. consider the sounds [p] and [pʰ] in these examples :

spat [spæt]
spool [spul]
pool [pʰul]
peek [pʰik]
You see that the sound [ph] only occurs word-initially but never after [s] unlike [p].

Equipollent oppositions: is formed by a contrastive pair or group of members which are differentiated by different positive features.
e.g. the phonemes /t/ and /k/ form an equipollent opposition in which the voiceless consonant /k/ is velar while the voiceless consonant /t/ is alveolar.

Phonology Resit Exam QuestionsPhonology Resit Exam Questions

Exercise 2

/ṛ/ /ṣ/ /l/ /i/ /ö/ / œ/ /py/ / ʔ /
Consonantal
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Syllabic
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Sonorant
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Continuant
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Del R
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Nasal
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Lateral
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Anterior
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Coronal
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Back
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Round
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High
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Low
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Tense
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Exercise 3

If we consider the data (A), to form the perfective form of the verb we add a siffix -ia at the end of this verb as in :
olo             oloia
aŋa             a ŋia
usu             usuia

However, by following the same process the results for the data (B) should be like:
taui             tauiia
naumati      naumatiia

But, it is not the case in this data. We have :
taui             tauia
naumati      naumatia

So, an /i/ sound is deleted. The one of the verb root which undergoes this change or the one of the suffix. To solve this, let’s take other examples from this language :
tafe             tafea
taʔe             taʔea

We conclude then that the /i/ of the suffix which is deleted. Accordingly, by observing carefully the data (A) and (B), we notice that in all these examples, the suffix -ia is preceded by the vowel sounds /u/, /o/, /a/, /e/ and /i/. These sounds could be classified in two categories back (/u/, /a/, /o/) and front (/i/, /e/) vowels.
As a conclusion, the /i/ of the suffix is deleted only when it is preceded by a front vowel sound.

Exercise 4

A- Vowel harmony, a high vowel of a suffix agrees in backness with the stem vowel.
Vowel harmony Process Rule
 
B- Consonant Insertion to break up a vowel cluster.

Consonant Insertion Process Rule



Exercice 5

In Syrian Arabic, to form the definite form of nouns we add the prefix /l/ at the initial of the words like in data (A). However, in data (B) we notice that the initial consonant is doubled as in :
Saff              S-Saff
taxt               t-taxt

The reason underlying this phonological change consists on the consonant following the prefix. In fact, when the prefix precedes a noncoronal consonant it remains unchanged; whereas, it precedes a coronal consonant it assimilates to this coronal consonant.

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